Copper chloride dihydrate is an inorganic compound. I […]
Copper chloride dihydrate is an inorganic compound. Its appearance is monoclinic yellow or yellow-brown crystal or crystalline powder. It is deliquescent, toxic, weathered in dry air and exists in nature as copper oxychloride. It is a planar chain-like covalent compound with a relative molecular mass of 134.45, a relative density of 3.386(25℃), a melting point of 620℃, which decomposes into cuprous chloride when heated to 993℃ and emits chlorine gas.
The product is easily soluble in water (g/100 g): 69.2 at 0℃, 71.5 at 10℃, 74.5 at 20℃, 76.4 at 25℃, 78.3 at 30℃, 86.8 at 40℃, 89.4 at 50℃, 98.0 at 60℃ and 110.5 at 100℃. Dissolved in ethanol: 43.3 at 0℃, 50.0 at 20℃, 58.3 at 40℃ and 70.8 at 60℃.
Dissolved in methanol: 56.5 at 0℃, 58.6 at 20℃, 61.8 at 40℃ and 66.4 at 60℃. It is also soluble in diethyl ether, acetone, pyridine, liquid ammonia, and sulfuric acid. Its thermal stability is not as good as cuprous chloride, but it is more stable in aqueous solution than cuprous chloride.
Copper chloride dihydrate is yellow-green at high concentrations and green at slightly lower concentrations. The medium concentration are blue, the dilute concentration is sky blue, and the heating is yellow-brown. The yellow color is due to the formation of [CuCl4]2+ coordinated Chemicalbook ions, while the blue color is due to the formation of [Cu(H2O)4]2+ coordinated ions, which are green when both coexist. It reacts with ammonia to generate beautiful dark blue cuprammonium coordination ion [Cu(NH3)4]2+, which forms cuprammonium acetate solution when dissolved in acetic acid and can be used as carbon monoxide absorbent. When copper chloride dihydrate to react with a strong alkali, light blue copper hydroxide is formed. It reacts with reducing anions such as I-, CN-, etc. to form a cuprous salt (or complex) precipitate. The relevant reaction formula is as follows: 2Cu2+++4I-→ 2CuI+I22Cu2+++6CN-→ 2Cu (CN) 2-+(CN) 2. It can also react with sulfur dioxide, Sn2+, copper, etc. to reduce to cuprous chloride: 2Cucl2+2NaCl+SO2+2H2O → 2Cucl+4HCl+Na2SO4. In alkaline solution, copper chloride dihydrate can be reduced to red cuprous chloride by reducing agents such as glucose. Using this feature, diabetes can be detected: 2CucL2+2NaOH+C6H12O6 → 2CucL+C6H12O7+2NaCl+H2O.
Copper chloride dihydrate can be used as a catalyst for many organic reactions (such as chlorination of hydrocarbons), decolorants and desulfurizes for petroleum products, wood preservatives, mordants and disinfectants in textile printing and dyeing, feed additives and pigments for glass and ceramics.
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